Cờ vua: Bẫy Mortimer cực đỉnh trong khai cuộc Tây Ban Nha Ruy Lopez

 

The Mortimer Trap is a chess opening trap in the Ruy Lopez named after James Mortimer. The Mortimer Trap is a true trap in the sense that Black deliberately plays an inferior move hoping to trick White into making a mistake.

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 Nf6

The trap begins with Black playing the Berlin Defense to the Ruy Lopez. Although the Berlin was much more popular in the 19th century than in the 20th, it “became the height of theory when Vladimir Kramnik used it as his main defense to defeat Garry Kasparov in their 2000 World Championship match.”[1]

4. d3

White plays a quiet alternative to the more common 4.0-0, 4.d4, or 4.Nc3 (the last would transpose to the Four Knights Game). I. A. Horowitz and Fred Reinfeld wrote that 4.d3 is “Steinitz’s move, with which he scored many spectacular successes during his long reign as World Champion.”[2]

4… Ne7

The Mortimer Defense, intending to reroute the knight to g6. This rare move loses time and thus is inferior to other moves, but it sets a trap. White has many acceptable replies, but the tempting capture of the black pawn on e5 is a mistake.

5. Nxe5? c6! (see diagram)

Attacking the white bishop and threatening 6…Qa5+. If the bishop moves (6.Ba4 or 6.Bc4), Black wins a piece with 6…Qa5+, forking the white king and knight.

6. Nc4

White’s best try, covering a5 and thus preventing 6…Qa5+, and threatening smothered mate with 7.Nd6#.

6… d6! 7. Ba4 b5

Black forks the white bishop and knight, winning a piece for two pawns.
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